Cooling tower efficiency calculations cooling tower efficiency calculation is described in this article. Cooling tower performance in free cooling applications is dependent upon both the system and cooling tower design. Cooling tower manufactuer, closed circuit fluid coolers, installation and maintenance, more than 40 years in the hvac market. Pdf 60 m3h nominal capacity cooling tower was designed, based on the required cooling water parameters in process of the adhesive production in the. Air mass flowrate, g the first four parameters are determined by the user of the cooling tower. Therefore, the cooling tower in albuquerque will be able to extract more process or building heat and will run at a cooler temperature because the dry desert air. The water which needs to be cooled only comes into contact with the air in open circuit. If your requirements are for 90 deg f 32 c then you most likely need a cooling tower or fluid. Best management practice and guidance manual for cooling towers prepared by jea for the control of pollutants discharged to the sanitary collection system. The tower takes the heat from the water stream and rejects it to. The cooling towers at biogen idec are the largest users of water in the facility. F o r m u l a s a n d t a b l es formulasandtables fanlaws. Technical information for cooling towers using recycled water.
The fan deck supports the motor and fan of the water spray system. It allowed the power generating facility to reduce the biological accumulation in the tower, improving efficiency and eliminating the need for an expensive, manual cleaning of the tower s fill. They reject process heat from the cooling water to atmosphere and keep the water cool. An introduction to water cooling towers ced engineering. Cooling towers overcome most of these problems and therefore are commonly used to dissipate heat from watercooled refrigera tion, airconditioning, and industrial process systems. Cooling tower thermal design manual the early investigators of cooling tower theory grappled with the problem presented by the dual transfer of heat and mass. Cooling towers play an integral part in either providing comfort in large commercial buildings or process cooling across an extensive range of applications. Cooling towers with open and closed water circuits are available. Dirty water in your cooling tower fouls chillers, drives up energy costs and encourages the growth of harmful bacteria. Cooling towers entry procedure and permit cooling towers are permit required confined spaces if the atmosphere inside the cooling tower is changed by welding, cutting, burning or the use of solvents or cleaners that cause vapors or fumes within the tower.
The cooling tower must be adequately sized to reject this same amount of heat to the atmosphere. This water is often discharged to the sanitary sewer system. Owners of buildings with cooling towers must register their towers, as required by the new york city administrative code section 317. Monroe the questions most frequently asked of a fan engineer about axial flow fans for todays wet cooling towers generally cover. The cooling tower cleaning was performed in a safe and environmentally friendly manner. Both types function as heat exchangers based on the counter flow principle.
The primary task of a cool ing tower is to reject heat into the atmosphere. Cooling technology institute wtb148 08 routine treatment continuous always preferred o continuous free residuals of 0. Best management practice and guidance manual for cooling. Simulation of a counterflow and crossflow cooling tower by the stepwise integration method montri pirunkaset abstract the stepwise integration method is an approximation method for determining the water temperature in the fill layers for a counterflow cooling tower and in the fill cells for a crossflow cooling tower. Rp m 2 rp m 1 cfm 2 c fm 1 staticpressure 2 static pressure 1 cfm 2 cfm 12 ho rsep ower 2 ho rsepow er 1c fm cfm 3 formulas. Frederick merkel was on the faculty of the technical college of dresden in germany. Both open and closed circuit evaporative cooling towers are available. The merkel theory overcomes this by combining the two into a single process based on enthalpy potential. The basics of cooling tower water treatment the purpose of a cooling tower is to remove the heat generated by an hvac system cooling of compressor refrigerant and heat generated by the compressor itself.
The cooling component of this new electricity station is a natural draft cooling tower 200 m high, the tallest cooling tower and the largest shell structure in the world. For the sake of this document, cooling tower systems include open recirculating circuit coolers, fluid coolers, and evaporative coolers, closed. Even a marginal improvement in the efficiency of evaporative cooling equipment, heat exchangers and chillers can offer owners significant savings over the lifespan of the cooling systems. A cooling tower is a specialized heat exchanger in which air and water are brought into direct contact with each other in order to reduce the waters temperature. High vol umes of air pass through the tower subjecting compo nents to airborn contaminants.
By converting to recycled water, cooling tower customers can secure a drought proof water supply that. Cooling tower systems include all components that provide comfort cooling by rejecting heat to the atmosphere through the evaporative process. Warm recirculating water is sent to the cooling tower where a portion of the water is evaporated into the air passing. A cooling tower is a heat rejection device which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream. Model cooling tower maintenance program and plan name of facility.
Cooling towers are used to reject heat through the natural process of evaporation. It is the fifth quantity, g, that is selected by the designer of the cooling tower. Questions from the floor at our annual conference and answered by a leading panel of experts within the cooling tower industry. For example, the cooling tower might be specified to cool 4540 m3 hr from 48. Cooling towers entry procedure and permit cooling towers are a permit required confined space if atmosphere inside cooling tower is changed by welding, cutting, burning or the use of solvents or cleaners that cause vapors or fumes within the tower all shaded areas must be completed by entry supervisor or entrant o.
Dutchess community college cooling tower maintenance program and plan april 1, 2016 5 routine inspection, cleaning and treatment all cooling towers will be subject to monthly inspections and treatment adjustment during the period of use. One bit of cooling tower terminology that many people find confusing is the notion that a ton of cooling tower capacity is equal to 15,000 btus per hour. Simulation of a counterflow and crossflow cooling tower. Cooling towers are usually specified to cool a certain flow rate from one temperature to another temperature at a certain wet bulb temperature. Industrial cooling towers are used to remove surplus heat from water. Chiller vs cooling tower we often get the question as to when to use a chiller andor cooling tower for process cooling. Cooling tower monitoring and environmental compliance. The easy answer is what temperature waterglycol do you need. A typical 200 ton cooling tower operating 1,000 hours a year may assimilate upwards of 600 lbs. In the wl 320 open wet cooling tower, water is sprayed into the tower from above and distributed as widely as possible using baffles. Cooling tower pumping and piping bottom vented downcomer.
By converting to recycled water, cooling tower customers can secure a droughtproof water supply that. The towervac quickly removes slime, algae and mud from the sides and floor of your basin or sump. Types of ice as on any outside structure, ice can form on a cooling tower in the wintertime purely by natural effect. Enexio a cooling tower is a device which is used to extract excess heat from the process water stream and rejects this excess heat to the atmosphere. We all know that a ton of cooling is equal to 12,000 btus per hour, so how can a ton of cooling tower capacity equal 15,000 btus per hour. Cooling is accomplished through the latent heat of vaporization. After the water has been chilled, it is distributed via pumps, pipes, and valves the distribution system to the loads, where a heat exchangerfor example, a cooling coil in an airhandlertransfers heat from the air to the chilled water, which is returned to the chiller. Pdf temperature control is a significant requirement in the most industrial process. The answer lies in the ashrae handbookstates that the.
These studies were complicated by the fact that the cooling tower market is typically driven by one of two powerful, yet often conflicting requirements. Cooling towers are a very important part of many chemical plants. Neglecting the cooling tower will lead to higher than desired return water temperatures to the system, which will result in higher energy use from two perspectives. Prevention of significant deterioration air permit. One helpful means to that end is the water cooling tower. Cooling tower evaporative cooling system measurement. Pdf design and performance analysis of the cooling tower in the. In addition, being both a water cooling and an air moving device, a cooling tower can promote the formation of ice by its very operation. Filtration guide cooling towers, evaporative condensers. Cooling tower efficiency calculations cooling tower approach. By using a cooling tower, the plant is kept safe and operational. Wet cooling tower is one of the key components of large scale water cooled air conditioning plants, whose efficiency influence the cop of the plant to a large extent. This report is available at no cost from the national renewable energy laboratory at. Cooling towers permit required confined space entry permit.
The water consumption rate of a cooling tower system is only about 5% of that of a oncethrough system, making it the least expensive system to. In a crossflow cooling tower, the hot water basin is used to distribute the warm return water flow uniformly over the tower fill see figure 6. Cooling towers are a special type of heat exchanger that allows water and air to come in contact with each other to lower the temperature of the hot water. In a counterflow cooling tower, water sprays are used to distribute the warm water see figure 8. Inadequate flow rates downcomer flow rates can be so low, relative to pipe size, as to allow air to enter at the pipe discharge.
Cooling towers permit required confined space entry permit 1. A simplified method to evaluate cooling tower and con denser performance. Best practice guidelines water conservation in cooling towers au 1. Dutchess community college cooling tower maintenance program and plan april 1, 2016 6 continuous routine treatment will be followed. Air flow enters one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meet the fill material. New york city health department, office of building water supply oversight. Cooling tower plays a major role in chemical process industry. Importance of clean operation cooling tower components must be kept clean and free of obstructions, because temperature matters. As this occurs, a small volume of water is evaporated, reducing the temperature of the water being circulated through the tower.
Engineering report and the project design documents. Tips for controlling harmful legionnaires disease bacteria suck it up. In this regard, cooling towers are key parts of many power. Introduction an open circuit or evaporative cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects heat to the atmosphere by cooling a water stream to a lower temperature. Inquiry documents should define the owners plan for payment of.1066 311 1182 1459 926 1297 919 1225 1371 169 1005 1131 518 710 1232 1442 239 885 1478 624 1285 839 148 1288 767 502 1081 898 575 1339 1004 707 1255 196 671 1285 465 1338 12 560